Data & Resources

These tables and graphics from the 2018 Global Agricultural Productivity Report® (GAP Report®) are available for use in print and online publications, earned and social media and in presentations.

To download the below images, click on the image. In the new window that appears right click on the image and select Save Picture As.

You can also download the zip file containing all the images on this page.

Please credit, Global Harvest Initiative, 2018 GAP Report®.

Prioritizing Productivity

Total Factor Productivity (TFP) is a ratio that measures changes in how efficiently agricultural inputs (land, labor, fertilizer, feed, machinery and livestock) are transformed into outputs.  TFP rises when producers use technologies and production practices that result in more output from existing resources.

For TFP data tables, methodology and analysis, visit the USDA Economic Research Service website.

The 2018 Global Agricultural Productivity Indexreveals that for the fifth straight year, global agricultural productivity growth is not accelerating fast enough to sustainably meet the food, feed, fiber and biofuel needs of nearly 10 billion people in 2050.

Sources of Agricultural Output Growth by Income Group and Region or Country

Total Factor Productivity is the primary contributor to global agricultural output today. However, land expansion and input intensification continue to be major drivers of output in many parts of the world.


Income Groups

Countries & Regions

Food Demand Gap

In 2012, Global Harvest Initiative established a series of regional estimates comparing food demand indexes against projected agricultural output from TFP growth for the period 2000 to 2030. This figure indicates how much of a region’s or country’s domestic food demand can be met through efficient use of agricultural inputs to generate more output, as measured by TFP.

Those regions unable to meet 100 percent of domestic demand through TFP growth will make up the difference in other ways, including putting more land into production, intensifying the use of inputs and extending irrigation. These strategies need to be selected and managed with care to protect the resilience and sustainability of the land, water and human capital resources that are the foundation of food and agriculture systems.

Trade will also play a critical role in filling the food demand gap.  However, low-income consumers, particularly in urban areas, may struggle with higher food costs. Increasing productivity growth is the best, most sustainable way to fill their food demand gap.

Agricultural Research and Development

Consumer Demand and Food Waste

Agricultural Business Cycles and Sustainable Production

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